Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI), Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) & Regional Aerosol Warming EXperiment (RAWEX) hold the three facets of the Aerosols and Radiative Forcing (A & RF) projects of SPL, being implemented under the ISRO-GBP.

 These projects aim at evolving accurate regional aerosol characterization, incorporating the heterogeneity in space, time and spectral domains, for periodical and accurate estimates of Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India and to assess the impacts on regional and global climate.




  • ARFI involves continuous measurements using the network (ARFINET) of aerosol observatories. ICARB involves multi-platform thematic field experiments addressing to specific problems pertinent to ARFI. RAWEX envisages to quantifying the climate implications of the atmospheric warming produced by the absorbing aerosols through a synergy of observations and modelling.
  • From a very modest beginning in 1985, to accurately characterizing aerosol using an in-house built Multi Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR) operating from a few stations following a common protocol, the experiment grew steadily in size and objectives to become a national project with more than 42 observatories at present.
  • These projects have immensely contributed to scientific capacity building, inter-institutional collaborations, collective thinking and team spirit, that has taken these projects to the front-line and has opened up new research topics; all under a common umbrella.
  • The scientific contributions of ARFI, ICARB & RAWEX are being increasingly recognized at the national and international levels across the institutions and several inimitable publications have emerged in front-line, peer-reviewed, impact factor journals, while several of them have been cited in the fifth assessment report of the IPCC for presenting the prevailing scenario over Asia as well as to assess the impacts.

  Click here:  Primary Objectives of Aerosol & Radiative Forcing Projects